Hybrid cars / electric cars

Download free pdf books on electric and hybrid cars

Electric vehicle as of June 2019Download ebook 2.5Mb
CRC hybrid cars free bookDownload ebook 11.5MB
A Guide to electric carDownload pdf file 1MB
HV battery control systemsDownload ebook 401KB
Hybrid an electric vehicle safety training programDownload ebook 30.4MB
NSC Electric vehicle program guideDownload ebook 1.17MB
A case study of tesla motorDownload pdf
A comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric VehiclesDownload pdf
Analysis of the Electric Vehicle IndustryDownload pdf
Electric Vehicle technology briefDownload PDF
Hybrid and electric training solutionsDownload PDF
Training for work on vehicles with high voltage systemsDownload PDF
Electric vehicle setting a course for 2030download PDF
challenges and opportunities for Electric Vehicle Adoption Download PDF
A review on Electric Vehicle: Technologies and ChallengesDownload PDF
Technology Roadmap for Tesla Motors sedan EVDownload PDF
Tesla motors case study Download PDF
Tesla, the battery technology behind the wheelDownload pdf
MIL ON With DTC P0A80/P1AC000 and/or P0A7F/P1A8000 Due to Dust or Debris in the HV Battery Cooling Fan/FilterDownload pdf  720KB
TOYOTA PRIUS  Plug-in Hybrid Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Synergy DriveDownload pdf  2.4MB
Hydrogen and fuel cell solutions for  transportationDownload pdf  4.3MB
Hybrid Vehicle Safing Procedure for NiMh Battery Quick Training Guide QT013ADownload pdf  5MB
A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development Download pdf  11MO
Hydrogen Fuel Cell AutomobilesDownload pdf 105Ko
HYBRID BATTERY SYSTEMDownload pdf  2.3MO
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV): Policy Advances to Enhance Commercial SuccessDownload pdf 234KO
Electric and Hybrid Cars A HistoryPDF book 17MB
Electric powertrain  energy systems, power electronics & drives for hybrid, electric & fuel cell vehiclesPDF book 25MB
GOVPUB-C13-hybrid electricPdf book 12MB
Power Train Engineering and Technology Modeling, Control, and SimulationPDF book 51MB
Hybrid Electric AUTOMOTIVE final cs2pdf book 14MB
Hybrid Vehicles and the Future of Personal TransportationPDF book 11MB
Modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles PDF book 19MB
Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, *Second Edition PDF book 10MB
Build Your Own Electric Car Or TruckPDF 02MB
Hybrid Vehicle TechnologiesPDF 613Kb
LAND ROVER HYBRID FAQ GUIDE Interactive tcm281-129251PDF 05MB
Hybrid Control of an Automotive RobotizedGearbox for Reduction of Consumptions and EmissionsPDF 01MB
Fundamentals of Hybrid cars Technology A hybrid vehicle is one that uses a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) and a battery-electric drive system to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The most common type of hybrid car combines Gasoline ICE and Electric MotorDownload pdf file 49 pages / 2.3Mb

 

hybrid carsHybrid cars technology

A hybrid cars combines two methods for the propulsion of a vehicle. Possible combinations include diesel/electric, gasoline/flywheel, and fuel cell/battery. Typically, one energy source is storage, and the other is the conversion of fuel to energy. The combination of two power sources may support two separate propulsion systems.

 What are fuel cells? Broadly speaking, a fuel cell is an electrochemical reactor that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant directly to electricity. More recently, the word fuel cell has been used almost exclusively to describe such a reactor using hydrogen as the primary source of energy. Hydrogen has a long history of being used as fuel for mobility.

More than 200 years ago, hydrogen was used in the very first internal combustion engines by burning the hydrogen itself, similar to burning gasoline today.

However, this did not prove to be quite successful, due to safety concerns as well as low energy density. Rather, in a modern fuel cell, hydrogen is a carrier of energy, by reacting with oxygen to form electricity.

 

The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen  in a fuel cell

 

The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen is astoundingly simple, and can be represented by the following formula: 2H2 +O2 =2H2 O. 5 In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are introduced separately with hydrogen supplied to one electrode of the fuel cell and oxygen to the other. The two electrodes are separated by a material called the electrolyte, which acts as a filter to both stops the cell reactants from mixing directly with one another and to control how the charged ions created during the partial cell reactions are allowed to reach each other. Hydrogen molecules first enter the hydrogen electrode (called the anode) of the fuel cell.

The hydrogen molecules then react with the catalyst coating the anode, releasing electrons to form a positively charged hydrogen ion. These ions cross the electrolyte and reach the oxygen at the second electrode (called the cathode). The electrons, however, cannot pass the electrolyte. Instead, they flow into an electrical circuit, generating the power of the fuel cell system. At the cathode, the catalyst causes the hydrogen ions and electrons to bond with oxygen from the air to form water vapor, which is the only byproduct of the process.

2021 Elentra Hybrid cars HEV (HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE) SYSTEM

The HYUNDAI Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) uses both the gasoline engine and the electric motor for power. The electric motor is run by a high-voltage HEV battery. Depending on the driving conditions, the HEV computer selectively operates between the engine and the electric motor or even both at the same time. Fuel efficiency increases when the engine is at idle, or when the vehicle is driven by the electric motor with the HEV battery. The HEV battery charge must be maintained, so at times the engine will come on even at idle to act as a generator. Charging also occurs when decelerating or by regenerative braking download pdf owners manual 555 pages.



Lexus RX450 Hybrid Drive  

The RX450h 5-door wagon joins the hybrid model for Lexus Hybrid Drive means that the vehicle contains a gasoline engine and front and rear electric motors for power. The two-hybrid power sources are stored onboard the vehicle:

1. Gasoline is stored in the fuel tank for the gasoline engine.

2. Electricity stored in a high voltage Hybrid Vehicle (HV) battery pack for the front and rear electric motors. The result of combining these two power sources is improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. The RX450h never needs to be recharged from an external electric power source. Depending on the driving conditions one or both sources are used to power the vehicle. (Download Lexus RX450 manual)